South Africa, exposé de 4 pages en anglais
The capital of South Africa is Pretoria and the largest city is Johannesburg. The actual president is Thabo Mbeki. There are 11 official languages recognized by the south african constitution (Afrikaans, english, zulu, ...).
II°/ The Apartheid: 1948/1991
III°/Nelson Mandela : the most widely known icon in the struggle against apartheid
[...] He wrote an autobiography named “Long walk te freedom” published in 1995. He begun work on it secretly while he was in jail. He tell about his childhood, his political activities, his years in prison and his activity when he was president. Today: ( HIV/AIDS: Today, in South Africa, as in many african countries, there is an important AIDS epidemic especially in the black population. It is estimated that more than 100 people die in South Africa every day because of AIDS and that six million people in the country are expected to die in the next ten years. [...]
[...] ( Criminality: Crime continues to be a major problem in South Africa. According to a survey of the United Nation for the period from 1998 to 2000, South Africa was ranked second for assaults, murders, rapes, burglaries . Many wealthier South Africans moved into gated communities for the relative security of suburbs. ( Agrarian reform : In 1994 only (point, per cent) farmes were redistributed to Black people. The government wanted that in of the land will belong to black people. [...]
[...] In 1973, the General Assembly of the United Nations agreed on the text of the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid. The convention wanted to press the South African government to change its policies but it apply to any other analogous policies in other countries. The Rome statute defined Apartheid as a crime against humanity. CCL: On the one hand, the Apartheid is finished today so we can be optimistic because the country has a new beginning. But on the other hand, South Africa knows a lot of problems today. [...]
[...] He is the former president of South Africa. He was the first to be elected in fully representative democratic elections. He was at the head of the anti-apartheid movement and he was the leader of the African National Congress. During the Apartheid, he spent twenty-seven years in jail, for being at the head of the struggle against the politic domination of the white minority. He was released from prison in nineteen-ninety (1990). After his release he adopted a policy of reconciliation and negociation. [...]
[...] A lot of african people immigrate in South africa to win more money than in their own country. But AIDS and criminality frighten people so they leave the country. History - 1652/1700: the Duch, the French and German Protestants settled in South Africa - 1795 : the British conquered the colony - 1899/1902 : war (Afrikaners against British) - 1910 : Act of Union The Apartheid: 1948/1991 - System of racial segregation : the rules of Apartheid dictated that people be legally classified into racial groups (the main ones were Black, White, Coloured and Indian) - Bantustans : black people are forced to live in black homelands (1970's) - voting rights were restricted to the black homelands - black homelands were economically the least productive areas of the country - education, medical care, and other public services were segregated ( series of negotiations from 1990 to 1993, culminating in democratic elections in 1994. [...]
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