The application of feminism to the field of criminology can be quite uncommon; indeed, in criminology it is men who supply the essential standard case. Until recently, criminology has been primarily focused on men and crime with little reference to women.
Feminist criminology developed in the late 1960´s and into the 1970´s, was closely associated with the emergence of the second Wave of Feminism at this time.
In other words, the facts about crime tend to be based on the sex of the offender and not the crime itself.
The maleness of crime is true of the United States of America, Great Britain, Australia, all western and eastern countries etc indeed, we must admit that men are the vast majority of violent and non-violent offenders (according to statistics).
Ngaire Naffine, the author of the book: Feminism and criminology explains that crime is also something that men are expected to do because they are men and women are expected not to do because they are women.
Crime, men and masculinity have a relationship but we may wonder if the stereotypes of the women as deviant and law-abiding sex are not going to be faded. Indeed, crimes are going against their natural biology such as passivity and purity; women are seen as weak and in need of protection while being judged as having uncontrollable behavior or sexuality.
It raises the following questions: why, women, with increased status and power begin to commit criminal offences that have traditionally been committed by men? What makes women commit fewer crimes than men? What is the treatment of female offenders by the criminal justice system?...
The impact of femininity on criminal behavior and criminology's world view can be developed and explained through two parties: the women as offenders (I) and the explanations of the violent behavior of women (II).
[...] Men, on the other hand, are apt to be involved in offences against strangers, such as in a pub or in the street (it tends to be unrelated to the victims of the offence). Furthermore, men are two to three times more likely to carry weapons, and women are more likely to use knives than guns, boys' weapon of choice. Women are more likely than men to murder someone as a result of a conflict rather than during a crime, and to murder and fight with family members. [...]
[...] They can wonder how the innocent-looking young lady in front of them could possibly have undertaken the violent elements that are there . One explanation, which magistrates gave for differences in the sentences given to men and women, was that their motives were rarely similar. In their opinion, a shop theft committed by a female differed considerably from thefts by men because women feed the family, and will be probably a single mother without any money”. Men are characterized as stealing alcohol or CD´s and video to sell. [...]
[...] -Why person becomes law-abiding or criminal? -Are women victims of their offence histories? TABLE OF LITTERATURE: Ngaire Naffine: “Feminism and Criminology” 1997 Michelle Perrot: femmes ou le silence de l´histoire” 1998 Margaret Shaw & Sheryl Dubois: “Programme des femmes purgeant une peine” 1995 Carol Hedderman & Loraine Gelsthorpe: “Understanding the sentencing of women” 1992 Loraine Gelsthorpe & Nancy Loucks: “Magistrates´explanations of sentencing decisions” 1992 Pamela Davies: “Women, crime and an informal economy”, Vol.2_1999 - British criminology Conferences. Becky Hamlyn: Women Prisoners” 1999 Adler: “Sisters in Crime” 1975 Simon: “Women and Crime” 1975 Feminist and criminologists writers: Freda Adler, 1975; Frances Heidensohn ; Allen ; Carlen ; Immarigeon & Chesney Lind ; Reiss and Roth ; Chunn and Gavigan ; Herman Steffensmeier ; Artz Websites: www.doc.state.ok.us www.encarta.com www.fas.unmontreal.ca www.collegecourse.com Criminology can be understood as the study of crime as a social phenomenon. [...]
[...] Sex differentials in sentencing are subject to a variety of interpretations, and not all feminists want the criminal justice system to treat women equally. The starting point is the analysis of differences in sentencing patterns, the result of which can be used for exploring how the magistrates approach the sentencing decision and what influences their decision-making. Sentencing statistics show large overall differences in the sheer number of males and females convicted and sentenced for criminal offences. They also show differences in the proportions receiving particular types of sentences. [...]
[...] Nevertheless, abuse may be an environmental cause of female criminality. The emphasis on money problems, specified by inmates with and without a history of abuse as a reason for their ongoing legal problems, suggests that economic marginalization may also be a factor. Social and economic factors: Current research on violence and delinquency considers how social class, race, ethnicity, and culture interact to cause young women to behave violently (Chesney-Lind & Shelden 1998). It also helps explain why girls join gangs: to develop skills to survive in their harsh communities and temporarily escape a dismal future. [...]
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