Ce rapport, en anglais, résume et extrapole tout d'abord l'article 'New Concepts and Trends in International R&D Organization', écrit par Oliver Gassman et Maximilian von Zedwitz, qui ont développé un modèle évolutif de la structure de R&D des entreprises internationales. La seconde partie illustre l'un des types d'organisation dégagé par les auteurs, par l'intermédiaire de l'étude de cas de la compagnie Nestlé.
[...] The size of the circles indicates the extent of absolute R&D expenditures. Source: Gassmann, O and von Zedwitz, M. (1999), Concepts and Trends in International R&D Organization”, Research-Policy, March 1999, p.234. [...]
[...] Of course, every scientific discipline has is department into the NRC: BioAnalytical Science Food Science Food/Consumer Interaction Plant Science Nutrition and Health Consumer Trust Pet Basic Research Scientific and Nutrition Support R&D INTEGRATED NETWORK. Source : Gassmann, O and von Zedwitz, M. (1999), Concepts and Trends in International R&D Organization”, Research-Policy, March 1999, p.243. As we show in the previous pages, Nestlé spent a lot of money into more than $1800 million in 2007. How does Nestlé's R&D Network work? The answer is: like an INEGRATED NETWORK! But the real question is: what is an integrated network?! The Domestic R&D doesn't control anymore all the other centers. [...]
[...] (1995), globalization of technology: what remains of the product cycle Cambridge Journal of Economics, p “Background report, Internationalization of R&D : trends, Issues and Implications of S&T policies” (2005), Forum on the internationalization of OECD, Belgian Science Policy, Edmont Palace, Brussels, Belgium march 2005, p Kogut, B. and Zander, B. (1993), “Knowledge of the firm and the evolutionary theory of the multinational enterprises”, Journal of International Business Studies, pp. 626- Gassmann, O & von Zedwitz, M. (1999), Concepts and Trends in International R&D Organization”, Research-Policy, March 1999, p Lam, A. (2007), Multinationals and transnational social space for learning: knowledge creation and transfer through global R&D networks in De Karen R. [...]
[...] In this configuration, R&D is still centralized in the home country but with external orientation and unrestricted flow of information. R&D employees are regularly sent abroad to co-operate with local manufacturing, suppliers and lead customers. Foreign employees are also hired to increase sensitivity to external clients This is an easy way to internationalize the R&D and, by doing this, the R&D center keeps Gassmann, O & von Zedwitz, M. (1999), op. cit., p Niosi, J. (1999), internationalization of industrial from technology transfer to the learning organization”, Research Policy, p the efficiency advantage of being physically centralized and gathers knowledge on available worldwide technologies. [...]
[...] Each Center is specialized into a particular technology area. The legally independent R&D Company NESTEC is responsible for the coordination of worldwide activities and the identification and exploitation of synergies. Less than 20 people manage the identification and the exploitation of synergies. These people are responsible for the transfer of technologies and know-how for the globally dispersed production sites. Each site has a license contract with Nestec for the services described above and for the usage of the Nestlé trademarks. [...]
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