Qualified in 2006 by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh as " the biggest threat for the internal security " it makes henceforth more victims than the insurgents of the Kashmir. This problem emerged as a wildfire insurrection in 1967 in the Naxalbari Are of North Bengal and spread rapidly to others areas before its suppression in 1973. The movement re-emerged in the region of Andhra Pradesh under the banner of the People's War Group (PWG) in 1980 and also with the reorganization of the Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) in Bihar in the mid-1980s. And in september 2004 these two groups formed the Communist Party of India-Maoist (CPI-Maoist). The consolidation of these two majors Maoist formations was translated into an augmentation of the capacities to "intensify the people's war in the country". Finally, in 2001, the Ministry of Home Affairs finished by conceded that 182 districts in 20 Indian States were affected by Maoist activities.
The Maoist have established regional bureaus to cover nearly two-thirds of the country 's territory. These regions are divided into state, special zone, special area committee jurisdictions. The year 2004 corresponds to a new strategy for the Maoist: they defined a new strategy in order to targeting urban centers ( two main industrial belts: Bhilai- Ranchi- Dhanbad- Calcutta/ Mumbai-Pune-Surat-Ahmedabad) and more precisely students and the urban unemployed. The strategy of Maoist to establish a base is this one: groups of Maoist cadres from an established base area come to an area targeted by the maoists and they survey the area and familiarize without violence, then the activists come to the area in order to educating local populations about their democratic rights. the aim is to make people perceive injustices, some local youths activists are encouraged to take some direct political protest actions or to take up arms. The maoist recognizes the strengths and superiorities of the state's present forces and alignment but recognizes also its vulnerabilities.
[...] The operation Green Hunt which is a coordinated multi theatre military offensive against the extremists that started in early 2010 is clearly defined in this perspective. This operation was organized in two stages: first massive and localized attacks by paramilitary forces in order to eradicate maoists, then the implementation of socio economics development plans. however this operation suffered from a lack of adequate planning and coordination between the different agencies involved in the operation. In this new strategy based under the both measure military and developmental the objective is to use the development as a tool to gain the support of the tribal population who sympathize with the extremists. [...]
[...] This report contains a series of recommendations with regards to implementation of protective legislation, land acquisition, rehabilitation Thus, it suggests that the problem of violence and terrorism should be perceived in the proper development perspective and handled politically and administratively rather than by using brute police force. Indeed, to develop only repression policies against Maoist is the testimony of a grave misunderstanding of the complexity of the maoist movement. For example, popular participation in militant protests is also an important part, feature of maoist mobilization. The political representation is also a determining point of Maoist movement and, without doubts, the ban on the Maoist party and the prohibition of such activities will be deeply useful to struggle against Naxalism. [...]
[...] Finally, a real escalation of violence happened since the movement arose again in a more violent form after the emergency with police excesses, extra judicial killing This trend was also followed in others states like in Andhra Pradesh in 1983 with the measure taken by the government to liberalized arms licensing to enable people to protect themselves from Naxalistes. Thus, in 2005 an operation called Salwa Judum (movement for freedom)has been launched. introduced as a spontaneous counter revolutionary movement, this movement was, in fact, largely sustained and helped by the Chahhattisgarh's government. The launching of this action has been decided because of the fresh outbreak of the number of naxalite actions in Chhatisgarh. [...]
[...] Different types of crisis could be identified: an information crisis first but also a managerial and organizational crisis. indeed in 1990 a restructuring of the ministry of Home Affairs was organized with the transfer if the management of the Dalit question and of the adivasi question to a separate ministry the "social ministry of justice and Empowerment". After independence the Indian government launched agricultural policies focused on the objective of a massively improving output without taking care about economic and social disparity. [...]
[...] The example of the operation Green Hunt is eloquent to demonstrate the problem of coordination between various States. Thus, some States pursued development measures when others ones were focused on development measures. This lack of coordination permitted to the extremists to use the territory of the states on security force operations to regroup in the states with soft on security force. It appears that even the central forces who aided the state police forces operated without real direction and able leadership. [...]
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