Between 1960 and 1990, Côte d'Ivoire was regarded as a model of state stability and state efficiency. But in 2002 the Ivorian State completely collapsed. At the same time the level of democracy in Côte d'Ivoire went up between 1990 and 2002, leading the country from a paternalistic dictatorship to a liberal democracy . Those two variables, state stability and the level of democracy, seem to have been negatively correlated. By conducting a case study on Côte d'Ivoire between 1990 and 2002, I will try to assess the extent to which democracy has been responsible of the failure of the Ivorian state. More precisely I will look at the process of democratization that took place, focusing on the political debate and of different democratic policies implemented during that time, their consequences on the stability of the state.
[...] The legitimate use of violence should also be in the hands of the sole state. Finally in the case of states with a heterogeneous population (more than one ethnic group or different religions or both), I will argue that the state must insure peaceful relations between communities. Rotberg gives a hint of this, 'the civil wars that characterize failed states usually stem from or have roots in ethnic, religious, linguistic, or other intercommunal enmity'.I will order those elements in three categories: the bringing of political goods, the integrity of state institutions and territory, and the peaceful coexistence of different communities. [...]
[...] The President was democratically elected and the Constitution created by Gueï clearly affirmed that 'the people of Côte d'Ivoire [ . ] express its attachment to the democratic values awarded to all free people, notably: The respect and protection of fundamental freedoms, both individual and collective; The separation and balance of powers; Transparency in the conduct of public affairs'. But the supporters of Ouattara were still upset and the RDR refused to acknowledge the election of Gbagbo. The new President refused to organize new elections and instead severely repressed demonstrations led by the RDR. [...]
[...] Democracy is not to blame in Côte d'Ivoire, but the democratic processes that create a fight to get into power could be. This is not a new thesis and has been used as an argument by the supporters of monarchs and of authoritarian regimes. However it is important to mention that if the democratic processes were completed in a honest and truly democratic way, if political entrepreneurs had not tried to use their power to exclude opponents, the situation in Côte d'Ivoire could have sensibly different. [...]
[...] I will not presuppose for the case study that order under the rule of the law is better than order imposed by a dictatorship. Milliken and Krause explain that 'institutions of organized violence have always (or nearly always) ultimately been made to serve political interests, and hence to run in tandem with the state-making process, rather than undermining it'. Especially as this order and security allowed the economy to flourish between 1960 and 1980. Côte d'Ivoire was among the world leading exporters of coffee and cocoa which were sold at high prices. [...]
[...] I'll be using French resources when the information is very valuable or if the information is not available in English. Richard Cornewell, 'Africa watch Côte d'Ivoire: Asking for Africa security review On the CIA World Factbook website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iv.html On the NY Times website: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CEED6133DF93BA35751C1A96 5958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all On the International Institute for Strategic studies Armed Conflicts database: http://acd.iiss.org/armedconflict/MainPages/dsp_ConflictSummary.asp?Confli ctID=157 Matthew Kirwin, 'The security dilemma and conflict in Côte d'Ivoire' p.46 See the website of the two parties: http://www.fpi.ci/index1.htm and http://www.rdrci.org/main.asp On the Global Security website: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/ivory-coast.htm Matthew Kirwin, 'The security dilemma and conflict in Côte d'Ivoire' p.46 http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2004/01/mil- 040125-irin01.htm Matthew Kirwin, 'The security dilemma and conflict in Côte d'Ivoire' p.47 and http://www.etat.sciencespobordeaux.fr/institutionnel/cotivoir.html http://www.africa-onweb.com/pays/cotedivoire/histoire.htm http://www.jeuneafrique.com/jeune_afrique/article_jeune_afrique.asp?art_cl e=LIN28113celuisulpti0 http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=10173 Matthew Kirwin, 'The security dilemma and conflict in Côte d'Ivoire' p Matthew Kirwin, 'The security dilemma and conflict in Côte d'Ivoire', p 44 http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/oct2000/ivor-o28.shtml www.chr.up.ac.za/hr_docs/constitutions/docs/CoteD'ivoire(english%20summary )(rev).doc Reported by Amnesty International: http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAFR310072003?open&of=ENG- CIV Dominique Maliesky, L'ivoirité: de la conceptualisation à la manipulation de l'identité ivoirienne, http://www.rennes.iep.fr/IMG/pdf/jolivet.pdf , p.42 http://acd.iiss.org/armedconflict/MainPages/dsp_ConflictSummary.asp?Confli ctID=157 Brennan M. [...]
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