Citizenship, dual, identity, identity, immigration, integration, multiculturalism, citoyenneté, identité, nationalité, double nationalité, intégration
Dual citizenship is of central theoretical and contemporary political concern. Although there has been some work on dual nationality, scholars have largely neglected it in favor of studies of single citizenship.
At its most basic level, dual citizenship involves the simultaneous holding of more than one citizenship or nationality. A person can have all, or at least many, of the rights and responsibilities that adhere to a citizen in each of the several countries in which he is a citizen regardless of actual residence in a country, geographical proximity of the two countries, or the status of their economic, cultural, or political ties. Such multiple membership overlap two or sometimes more national polities and eludes the trinity of state territory, state authority and the people.
In its original formation and in state practice, the dominant approach to dual citizenship was one of hostility. The status seems opposed to the traditional conception of the state and its relationship to individuals that have left little room for multiple attachments. Indeed, since the French Revolution, the fundamental basis of individual belonging is citizenship of a nation-state Modern nation-states claim a monopoly not only on violence but also on determination of membership.
[...] - Hammar, T., ‘Dual citizenship and political integration', International Migration Review (1985) pp.438–50. - Hansen, Randall, Dual nationality, social rights and federal citizenship in the US and Europe: the reinvention of citizenship, Berghahn Books, Oxford - Jones-Correa, M., ‘Under two flags: dual nationality in Latin America and its consequences for naturalization in the United States', International Migration Review (2001) pp.997–1029. - Renshon Stanley A., ‘Dual Citizenship and American National Identity', Center for Immigration Studies - Schuck, Peter Citizens, Strangers, and In-betweens. [...]
[...] What is at stake with dual citizenship is whether or not this status facilitates integration. As we said, the debate is passionate and we find arguments on both sides. But the answer is not simple and varies depending on circumstances. Some argue that citizenship probably facilitates (but also reflects) the assimilation of newcomers in society by imparting a sense of welcome and belonging, reinforcing their attachment to national values and improving their language skills. We can also add that it helps to legitimate the exercise over them of governmental power. [...]
[...] Conversely, multiple citizenship has different meanings and implications in these two different circumstances. It seems quite clear that immigrants entering into a country whose cultural assumptions are fluid and “contested” will find it harder to assimilate, even if they wish to do so. In such a circumstance, dual-citizenship immigrants are more likely to maintain former cultural/country attachments than risk the development and consolidation of newer cultural/country identifications. Arriving into a solidly assimilationist receiving culture is very different from entering into a porous and “contested” one. [...]
[...] Settled non-citizens also have access to significant human, civil, and social rights. Citizenship as a “right to have rights” (Arendt) is no longer the fundamental basis of membership in political communities Trans-nationalism. The national perspective on dual citizenship does not take into account the importance of transnational ties of citizens and the resources inherent in relationships of reciprocity and solidarity. A transnational perspective captures a range of possibilities: immigrants or emigrants engage in transnational political activities and try to impact on dual citizenship legislation; governments of countries of origin interested in encouraging emigrants to maintain a link with the home country 3. [...]
[...] In the US, naturalization is mentioned in the Constitution. There are defined criteria of eligibility for naturalization. First there is a very subjective concept: one must be a "person of good moral character" to ask for the American citizenship. Then, there are steps to pass. - Citizenship test: Applicants for citizenship are asked ten questions about American history and institutions, and must answer at least six correctly. Most applicants must also have a working knowledge of the English language. - Oath: To achieve the naturalization, they have to make an oath that content a pledge of allegiance to the United States. [...]
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