United States, Wilson, League of Nations
World War I broke out in 1914, and it had an enormous impact on the development of the international organizations of countries. With raging bloody battles, the unprecedented losses in human and material terms drove the entire world to think of a way to prevent future conflicts. At that time, the realist paradigm was the one prevailing in international relations. In a world where war was a means to promote national interests, the thought of an organization bringing nations together to promote peace was revolutionary.
The year 1915 saw the establishment of the British League of Nations Society and also the establishment of the American League to Enforce Peace.
Before the very first attempts to create the League of Nations itself, other anti-war movements arose spontaneously and campaigned for a new international system that would promote peace and justice. Behind the initiative of the American League to Enforce Peace was the American president Woodrow Wilson. He brought his full support to its principles and was the first statesman to declare officially that its ideals would be incorporated in his own policies.
On the 6th of April 1917, the United States declared war on Germany. The urge for peace became even more crucial for the most powerful Ally. The project gained in substance and support. In 1914, when the war had begun, President Wilson had first declared his country neutral. Knowing that by force of circumstances he would someday have to take part in conflicts, he still managed to keep his neutral composure until 1916 when he was re-elected on the assumption that he had maintained America's neutrality. According to Sigmund Freud and William Bullitt , Wilson saw this war as a great opportunity to create an international organization for peace.
[...] Ibidem. Woodrow Wilson Addresses the Senate. United States Senate. [En ligne] [Citation : 5 May 2010.] http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/minute/Woodrow_Wilson_Addresses_ the_Senate.htm. HERMANN, M Op. cit., page 29. VAN GINNEKEN, A Op cit., page 7. Ibid., page 4. Ibid., page 13. BECK, S. Op. cit. HERMANN, M Op. [...]
[...] [En ligne] [Citation : 4 May 2010.] http://www.iilj.org/courses/documents/CovenantoftheLeagueofNations_000.pdf. MARBEAU, M Op. cit., page 12. HERMANN, M Explaining Foreign Policy Behavior Using the Personal Characteristics of Political Leaders. International Studies Quarterly. March 1980, pp. 7-46. Ibid., page 13. Ibidem. Fourteen Points. Wikipedia. Op. cit. [...]
[...] The final decision to reject the League of Nations may seem irrational. From an outside point of view, one would be told that the United States of America had been its principal defender and wouldn't understand why it didn't ratify the Covenant. The bureaucratic politics approach allows us to better understand the foreign policy-making processes. Interests may be conflictuals in national politics, and this case proves to be a perfect example of such a situation. Interaction of the two variables and theoretical model The two variables we have chosen to apply to our foreign policy decision interact in a comprehensive approach of the problematic. [...]
[...] It relies on the use of high and low complexity words. Wilson's speech grants us with an answer to that characteristic. He carefully picked his words when speaking of possible basis of a general peace”, or of the “perplexity” of an incident with the Russians representatives. He never provides us with simple statements and always pays the greatest attention to the choice of his expressions, denoting a high conceptual complexity. When speaking of the Germans, the enemy, Wilson still manages to speak of their “greatness”. [...]
[...] Bruxelles : Editions de l'Université de Bruxelles VAN GINNEKEN, A Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations. Oxford : Scarecrow Press Websites: BECK, S. Wilson and the League of Nations. Spiritual Awareness Now Beneficial Enlightning Clear Knowledge. [En ligne] [Citation : 4 May 2010.] http://www.san.beck.org/GPJ21-LeagueofNations.html#4. Fourteen Points. Wikipedia. [En ligne] [Citation : 3 May 2010.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteen_Points. The Covenant of the League of Nations (Including Amendments adopted to December 1924). Institute for International Law and Justice. [En ligne] [Citation : 4 May 2010.] http://www.iilj.org/courses/documents/CovenantoftheLeagueofNations_000.pdf. [...]
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