England & Scotland have an established church: the Church of England (Anglican Church) and the Church of Scotland.
The process started with King Henry VIII, who created the Church of England after his split with the Pope, a few years after Martin Luther had published the Ninety-Five Theses (1517).
The King wanted his marriage annulled in order to marry his mistress, but the Pope refused so Henry passed the Act of Supremacy, which made him Supreme Head of the Church of England.
[...] The Amish settled in Pennsylvania in the 18th century. They are reluctant to adopt modernity, which they deem arrogant, and prefer to lead a humble life which is reflected in their simple clothes, and their rejection of modern appliances from radios to fridges. The Quakers (Society of Friends) was established in Pennsylvania in the 17th century reject such things as ornaments and sacraments, and preach simplicity, tolerance and pacifism. Other well-established sects include Jehovah's Witnesses, New Age, the Reverend Moon's Unification Church and the Church of Scientology. [...]
[...] • Leading religious groups often use their electoral potential to influence political leaders' agenda. Televangelists tend to exceed the frontiers of religion. They easily manage to make the case for their favourite candidate by commenting on the parties' political platforms. Churches work like businesses, with powerful management teams and aggressive marketing strategies, which makes them powerful tools to shape public opinion. • In recent years, the religious right has been a broad label applied to a variety of political, religious and social movements with conservative or right-wing views. [...]
[...] Bush's presidency, religion was more than ever woven into the fabric of political life. He is said to have acted under the pressure of right-wing Christians on a number of occasions. His speeches were suffused with religious undertones and missionary zeal. During his mandates, restrictions were imposed on stem-cell research, partial-birth abortion was banned and there even was an attempt at introducing creationism alongside evolution theories in the school curriculum. • Evangelical Christians traditionally support the Republican Party, whereas more liberal Christians and secular voters tend to vote for the Democratic Party. [...]
[...] Religion in the US A. The religious diversity • The US is one of the most religious-minded of all western democracies. Adherence level is remarkably high: 75-80% of the pop claims to believe in God and the overwhelming majority of Americans identify themselves as Christians. • The diversity of religious faiths is another striking feature. Let us not forget that several of the original 13 colonies were established by English settlers fleeing religious discrimination. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded by Puritans, Maryland by Roman Catholics It is a widely held view that the Puritan religion of many of the early settlers has helped to promote the idea that material success is not shameful but sign of God's blessing, therefore taking part in shaping the American world ethic. [...]
[...] Moreover, many of those attending are of the older generations. • In spite of a decline in church attendance of the population put themselves down as Christians in the 2001 census for England and Wales. Britain is also a multi-faith society, with many Christian churches other than the Anglican Church and also many Hindus, Sikhs, Muslims and Buddhists. B. Religion and politics • Religion is omnipresent in public life, from state ceremonies to schools where the day begins with a prayer, although it now tends to be ecumenical (œcuménique), so as to reflect the complex religious landscape of the country. [...]
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