The history of Britain's integration into the European Union has always been very complex. Its first attempt to join was vetoed in 1963. Britain joined finally in 1973 with the departure of the French president Charles De Gaulle who was opposed to the presence of an Anglo-Saxon "Trojan horse" in the European institutions. It shows the importance of the Anglo-American relationship in terms of foreign policy. Therefore, the recent war in Iraq and the alliances in the United Nations Security Council have confirmed the ambiguities in the European integration process. Nevertheless, the economic success of the Euro and its relative strength in front of the dollar during these last months has launched again the debate in Britain about the single currency integration. The political groups in the country are split around the problem.
[...] Molle, W. (1990) The economics of European integration. Aldershot, Dartmouth. Portillo, M. (1998) Democratic values and the currency. London, The institute of political affairs. Schwartz, P. (1997) An appeal to fellow Europeans over monetary union . London, The institute of political affairs. Temperton, P. (1997) The Euro John Wiley and Sons. Tsoulakis, L. (1993) The new European economy: the politics and economics of European integration. [...]
[...] Retrieved the 05/11/03 from http://europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/ The OECD statistics available on line. Retrieved the 07/11/03 from http://www.oecd.org/home/ UK membership of the single currency, an assessment to the five economic tests Retrieved the 07/11/03 from http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk In 2003, the average exchange rate between Euro and dollar was for 0.935 Euros. Figures from http://www.oecd.org/home/ Elliot, L. Keegan, V. Kettle, M. and Palmer, J. (1997) The single currency, should Britain join? A Guardian debate Vintage ed. Chap 2 p12 Hoffman, Stanley (1995) European Sisyphus Oxford west view. Albert, Michel Capitalism against Capitalism. [...]
[...] The mass of the single currency is also a pledge of stability. The money is used by 290 million people and the Euro-zone manage of the world trade, thus the opening degree of European economies is very strong.. The risk of speculation against the is low because of its mass and of the European central bank powers that give efficiency to this institution. In a changing world context the entrepreneurs and companies look for stability, thus the single currency becomes a new powerful actor in the world monetary competition. [...]
[...] The labour also evolves in the other way, understanding the European regional integration as a way for challenging the liberal globalisation. However Labour doesn't succeed in selling the Euro to the public masses because it is all the European process that is examined as a problem. On the whole, the question of a single currency is symbolic, the adhesion represents in the spirits that Britain agrees with the European functioning and deepening. The British vision of the union is very pessimistic. The commission suffers of the democratic deficit, it organisation is both bureaucratic and technocratic. [...]
[...] Fitoussi, P.(2003) La règle et le choix. Presses de Sciences-Po. Giudice, G. and Montanino, A. Un pacte pour la stabilité et la croissance économique en Europe in Problèmes économiques 2791. Hoffman, S. (1995) The European Sisyphus. Oxford West view. Hutton, W. (1995) The state we are in. London John Cape. Hutton, W. (2002) The world we are in. [...]
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