Today, a lot of desires or worries of the European population are linked with the employment. From the question What would you do when you grown up? to the social claims and the general strikes. The reason is simple: a job provides a means to live but above all, work is presented as a mean to develop oneself and people want and are right to believe it. But the labor market, as it is named, is not an easy thing to understand and its fluctuations are still hard to control. Indeed, despite the liberal nature of the private contracts, the labor market is strongly regulated and people, in Europe, wait a lot for the governments. We will study in this analysis the evolution of the Spanish labor market since the new democratic stability of the 80's and the measures taken by the governments. In the second part, we will focus on the unemployment question in Spain and the policies stetted by the State in order to fight against this complicated problem.
[...] The employment policies in Spain The unemployment benefits. The system protection against the unemployment risk combines two levels: an unemployment insurance with decreasing allowances and function of the preliminary working lives and a an unemployment assistance where the allowance accounts for 75% of the interprofessional minimum wage. The insurance unemployment is opened to all the employed persons of industry and the services. The system of unemployment relief is more complex. For the unemployed people with dependent, the system is opened to the people at the end of the right to insurance unemployment and to the people not allowed to claim with the insurance unemployment but having contributed for three months. [...]
[...] The educative policy should be modernized too, in order to adjust the formation at the necessities of the labour demand. The labour market policies are not strictly in favour of one of these theories. On the whole, we can say that the passive policy is historically following a keynesian logic as a support to the aggregate demand. In contrary, the evolution of active policies seems more linked with the neoclassical ideas even if they present a real interes for the theories of human capital. B. [...]
[...] Sara Davies and Martin Hallet (2001) Policy responses to regional unemployment: Lessons from Germany, Spain and Italy European Commission : directorate- general for economic and financial affairs. Victoria Garcia-Rubiales (2004) Unemployment in Spain: An Analysis of Labor Mobility and Young Adult Unemployment Stanford University. Sergio Galvez Biesca (2003) La primera etapa de la politica laboral del gobierno socialista (1982-1992). Hipothesis de trabajo revista Hispania Nova. Joan Antoni Alujas Ruiz (2002) Politicas activas de mercado de trabajo en españa 1985-2002 Tesis doctoral Universidad de Barcelona. Gilles Saint Paul L'anatomie du chômage en espagne: une comparaison avec la France et les Etats- Unis. Economie et Statistiques 332-333, 2000-2/3. [...]
[...] But the domaine of jobs creation is not fixed and it is sur that the increase of the retired population will provide new springs of work demand. Glossary Unemployment rate : quotient between the unemployed population and the active population. Employment rate : quotient between the occupated population and the population being old enough to work. Activity rate : quotient between the active population and the population being old enough to work. Juvenil or Youth unemployment : unemploymed people under 25s. OECD : Organisation for Economic cooperation and Development. Non-wage labour costs : employer's contributions to the Social Security. [...]
[...] A social component with the recent women emancipation. A structural component with the strong dependence of the Spanish labour market with the economic cycles and its incapacity to generate an autonomous job creation. The ruptures in the labour market which are going to appear in the next years result of some reforms led by the governments in order to reduce these problems. Reforms marked by a willingness of flexibilization and liberalization, according to the neoclassical policies settled up in Europe and the OECD's* recommendations. [...]
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