The Cold War, fiches de cours de 10 pages en anglais relatant les étapes de la guerre froide
[...] 3 alternatives: Nuclear attack Invasion Blockade of the island October 22nd 1962: USA decides on a blockade to stop Russian ships carrying missiles October 25th 1962: US Navy intercepted Russian ships carrying missiles October 26th-27th: letters between Kennedy and Khrushchev Cuban Missile Crisis: 14th to 28th October 1962 Conclusion: They decided to: o Install a “hotline” between Moscow and Washington o Normalize their relations o To stop the arms race Because they realized how they were closed to a nuclear war. ( Crisis appears as a victory for Kennedy: The deal over the missiles in Turkey was kept over whereas the deal about those in Cuba wasn't. so it seemed that the soviets had simply backed down. After that, Khrushchev had a bad reputation and he was replaced by Brezhnev in 1964. [...]
[...] - 21 December: revolution began in Romania. the dictator, Ceausescu was executed on Christmas Day. - in 1990, the two halves of Germany were re-united. THE LAST DAYS OF THE USSR After 1989: Gorby was in a difficult position. In Russia itself on 4 February 1990: 250,000 people were demonstrating in Moscow. THE RISE OF YELTSIN AND THE FALL OF GORBACHEV Yeltsin: first president elected in Russia in May 1990 and responsible of the fall of the USSR in 1991. [...]
[...] The 1st signs of the collapse could be seen much earlier, in Poland in 1980. POLAND AND SOLIDARITY 1980: Polish gvt announced a massive increase in food prices. Gvt already unpopular: this let to strikes by shipworkers who wanted: Wage rises Right to form a free trade union More freedom for the Catholic Church Have free elections The gvt allowed workers to form a union called Solidarity. Solidarity created in 1980 by Lech Walesa 1st Non-Communist trade union in a communist country. [...]
[...] Chinese intervention: Early October 50: Chinese statement: “China won't sit back with folded hands and let the Americans come to the border” The Americans ignored this threat October: the Chinese government announced that their troops would attack the Americans. The fall of Mac Arthur: Truman abandoned the idea of conquering all of Korea and was considering making peace with China. MacArthur wanted to use the A Bomb against North Korea but Truman refused. tensions between Truman and Mac Arthur April 1951: Mac Arthur was dismissed. Eisenhower: - Became the supreme commander of the NATO in 1951. - He took power in January 1953 after Truman. Eisenhower wanted the end of the war. [...]
[...] America: economic power Nuclear power Military power They can control and intervade everywhere Iraq in 2003) UNHCR. It's an NGO protection and assistance to refugees and displaced or needy persons created on December 14th 1950 more than 6,000 employees about 5,3 million of displaced people are helped. The stakes in Today's world Now threats are everywhere. Bin Laden Al Jazeera Terrorism Al Quaida Al Quaida: it's multinational, with members from numerous countries and with a world-wide presence. The leader is Usama Bin Laden. [...]
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