Diabetes mellitus, fiche technique de 4 pages, en anglais
o 3% world population: most common non-communicable disease
o ? incidence
o High morbidity and mortality
o Leading cause of blindness and kidney disease, shortens life (15 years)
[...] Diabetes mellitus I. Definition: chronic systemic metabolic disorder II. Epidemiology o world population: most common non-communicable disease o incidence o High morbidity and mortality o Leading cause of blindness and kidney disease, shortens life (15 years) III. Clinical features o T1DM (abrupt onset): ( metabolism ( lipolysis, muscle wasting, weight loss o T2DM: obese o Hyperglycaemia o Osmotic symptoms: polydispsia, polyuria, nocturia, blurred vision o Fatigue, lassitude o Complications (associated conditions, infections, vascular complications) IV. Classification of diabetes A. Primary DM: no other disease Type juvenile onset Type adult onset MODY (=Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young): genetic β cell dysfunction Gestational diabetes B. [...]
[...] Microvascular complications 1. Pathogenesis (thickening of basement membrane of vessels) Chronic hyperglycemia Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins Thick and leaky blood vessel ( nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy 2. Retinopathy Pre-proliferative retinopathy: - Microaneurysms (venous dilation and small red dots) - Dot and blot retinal hemorrhages - Ischaemia + macular edema ( vision (late) - Exudates: Soft exudates (=cotton-wool spots; due to ischaemia) Hard exudates are caused by chronic edema Proliferative: - Neovascularisation - Large haemorrhages - Retinal detachment (advanced) 3. Neuropathy (nerves) Sensory neuropathy, motor (focal demyelination) Visceral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy - Paraesthesia, pain, muscle atrophy - Bilateral, symmetric, progressive, irreversible 4. [...]
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