On June 20, 1837, young Victoria was crowned Queen of the United Kingdom. The years of this queen's reign played an essential role in the constitution of England today. This era is a time of changes, progress and renewal, both at the industrial and technical level, as well as in the political and economic level. The Victorian era is the institutional foundation of the present United Kingdom and it is the one that made this kingdom the Great Nation. Queen Victoria's England is the culmination of the Industrial Revolution, but above all, is it not the largest empire the world has ever known? Are we not talking about this period, which extended from England to Ireland via Scotland, from 1837 to 1901, like that of the britannica pax?
[...] Didn't the changes that characterized the Victorian era contribute to the liberation of English and European women in the century following that era? Primary sources - Sara ELLIS, The Women of England (1838), The Daughters of England (1842), The Wives of England (1843) (found on websites) - Grant ALLEN, Plain words on the woman question, Fortnightly Review, October 1889 - Barbara LEIGH-SMITH BODICHON, Brief Summary of the Laws of England Concerning Women Trubner & Co. - Isabella Beeton, Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management Samuel Orchart Beeton - Dr William Acton, The Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive Organs (found on websites) - Charles Dickens, David Copperfield (in French), Hachette - Queen bees or working bees, Saturday Review November 1859 (found on websites) - Coventry Patmore, Angel in the House Gilman Secondary sources - Alain JUMEAU, L'Angleterre victorienne Perspectives Anglo- Saxonnes - https://www.cairn.info/l-angleterre-victorienne--9782130517313-page- 157.htm - https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89poque_victorienne - https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condition_f%C3%A9minine_dans_la_soci%C3%A9 t%C3%A9_victorienne Pictures sources - Frank Bernard Dicksee, Damsel in distress - The right length for little girls' skirts according to their age, illustration from Harper's Bazaar magazine Barbara Leigh-Smith Bodichon, Brief Summary of the Laws of England Concerning Women Trubner & Co Isabella Beeton, Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management Samuel Orchart Beeton Sarah Ellis, The Wives of England The women of England The daughters of England unknown publishers, are "self-help" books, designed to help women behave in the right way. [...]
[...] The Victorian era is preceded by the Georgian era and followed by the Edwardian era. The English Industrial Revolution quickly disrupted the codes of the British Empire: from agrarian and artisanal, the England of the Industrial Revolution became modern, commercial and industrial. The Industrial Revolution gave rise to many scientific and technological advances, still in use today. In 1859, Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species, in which he explained how species appear. The field of art and culture is also affected by this revolution. [...]
[...] At the beginning of the Victorian era, although women had to take full responsibility for the upbringing of children, they were not allowed to have custody of the children in the event of divorce of the spouses. In 1938, the Custody of Infants Act now allows women who have not committed any fault relating to the couple (adultery) to apply for custody of young children. Thirty-five years later, this law was amended: all women can apply for custody. We will see it later, but until 1884, the woman had no personal belongings: in the event of divorce, she would find herself on the street, without any property. [...]
[...] In reality, women confined themselves to the nursing profession. Due to a legal paradox, women cannot exercise professions without being under the supervision of a male superior: they could therefore under no circumstances exercise the profession of a doctor or surgeon. These legal reforms will allow women to acquire more rights, thus being recognized as human beings. The Victorian era is, legally speaking, a disaster for women. According to the law, the unmarried woman belongs to the father, who chooses a husband for her. [...]
[...] Thus, unlike other English women, they must receive an education, especially in the arts, in order to be able to "shine in society". According to Sarah Ellis, the author of many books on the behaviour and role of 19th century bourgeois women, founder of a school for learning women's roles, "As women, therefore, the first important thing is to be content to be inferior to men - inferior in mental power, in the same proportion as you are inferior in physical strength . " (The daughter of England). [...]
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