Communiste système politique partis
Since the end of the communist era in the early 90's, new countries have emerged. These countries had to rebuild a political system, which had often been based on the model given by the Western Europe countries. However, these new democracies remain unstable and complex. Indeed, democratization is a young process for these countries and it is described as a period of instability and transition. However, we can consider that this is more a phase of reorganization and adjustment. I will try to show that the comparison made between the stable political systems of Western Europe and those of the post-communist Europe is difficult: first because of the historical point of view, second because of a societal point of view. Finally, we can ask if stability would be possible through other models.
[...] Some political models other than that those of the Western Christian society can maybe better reflect the divisions of the society. We think about oriental countries in which religion is still a societal conflict. The political system in the post-communist countries is still unstable because of the adaptation of a totalitarian system to a west-European model. The comparison between these two systems seems difficult to make. Indeed, the east-European countries are in a border between occident and orient and have to make a reflection about themselves and to politicize their cleavages, maybe in an other way than the west-European way. [...]
[...] I will try to show that the comparison made between the stable political systems of Western Europe and those of the post-communist Europe is difficult: first because of the historical point of view, second because of a societal point of view. Finally, we can ask if stability would be possible through other models. The political systems of many of the countries of West Europe have emerged in the 20's, at the time they were experiencing the beginning of the process of democratization. These systems are based on the social disputes and divisions which have structured the political life. The post-communist democracies have emerged after the collapse of a pre-existing system which was rooted in society. [...]
[...] The communist legacy has often been denied. Moreover, these countries generally have a history which is different from the Western countries one. It is characterized by a strong foreign domination, like the Ottoman Empire, and by difficulties in their search for autonomy and identity. These dominations have hampered the construction of a common identity other than communism. According to Claus Offe, these countries have a triple transition in addition to democratization: the “marketization”, the economic transformation, and state-building. In these transitions we don't found the formation of a civil society. [...]
[...] This can be explained by the fact that this system has emerged after the democratization process. The system was not built, as in Western countries, but it has resulted from adaptation to new data: democracy. The party systems in established democracies are institutionally organized. The system of the young democracies are poorly institutionalized, thereby increasing instability. In one hand, only the elites running the country, any mass groups could integrate into the political system. On the other hand, interest groups are integrated into the political life, which complicates the context of competition. [...]
[...] The post-communist countries have to adapt themselves to Western Europe in a brutal way. For many, the instability can be explained by the youth of those democracies, which were able to develop rapidly thanks to the mass media. There is the common example of the democracies that have emerged after the Second World War, which were authoritarian regimes which have been able to stabilize. If we look at the study made by McAllister and White, we can see that – again- the study is conducted in an East-West comparison, and that it is based on the left-right division which is a characteristic of established democracies. [...]
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