Eau, accès, potable, géographie, purification, tiers-monde, sud, pauvreté, inégalité, environnement, maladies, poverty, water, pure, drinkable, malaria, diseases, slums
Ce court exposé explique les enjeux principaux de l'accès à l'eau potable pour les populations du Sud.
A travers un propos précis et chiffré, ce document permet d'appréhender efficacement ce problème majeur, en passant en revu les divers acteurs (Etats, OIG, ONG...) tout en étayant l'analyse de considérations géographiques et sociales. Document en anglais.
[...] Population don't have access to purifying, and the deaseses due to water are a true problem of public health. Of course, natural conditions can be a problem for the acces to drinkable water. Haiti is regulary confronted with flooding, deforestation . His drinkable water network is destroyed, and the governement, very poor, cannot make the indispensable repairings. The population must find solutions itself, in terrible hygienic conditions. The political situation of a country is a very important factor to explain this problem. [...]
[...] But, here again, nothing is simple. How promote the hygiene in areas where water and soap are still a luxe? Here again, the willpower of the government is essential. In Nicaragua, hygiene is an official subject in school . and the children's washing of hands have increased of eighty percent since the beginning of this politic. This political challenge is complex. Indeed, who can be responsable of the maintenance of the drinkable water network and of the distribution of water? [...]
[...] Today, the state takes more power in the distribution. To finish, we must underline a problem: the contradiction between the use of water as element of production, and the use of water as human necessity. Marroco knows a very deep debate. Indeed, the agriculture is a very important source of wealth, but the population is confronted with a profound lack of water. To assure the economical growth, the power gives subsidies to the farmers to pay less the water . [...]
[...] Today, having an access to drinkable and pure water is viewed as a fundamental human right. Improve this access is a very important political challenge, and lot of initiatives contribute to this fight. III/ A very important political challenge The access to drinkable water is a very important point of the united nations millenium objectives for the development. There is a real progress today. The IMF and the world bank are essential elements to explain this progress. But, for many people, these institutions don't understand the human reality of this challenge, and their views are said too technical. [...]
[...] Poverty is the principal fact to explain this situation. But this is not the only reason. African towns actually know a demographic explosion notably the Gulf of Guinea. It is natural that investmens are concentrate in these cities, but Rural world is sometimes forgotten by african politics. For some african leaders, there is not always important interests to develope area with few people . and few votes. In south america, the situation is sometimes still concerning. But a lot of progress have been made in this continent. [...]
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