There is a controversial debate on the existence of a European identity. Before the development of the Nation-State in its nationalist form and the two World Wars, there existed a ?vague sense of cultural commonality' . We can distinguish periods of unity in the history of Europe into three parts. During the first period, from the 5th century to the 14th century, there was a religious unification which converted the Europeans into Roman Christianity.
[...] Besides that most relevant obstacle, several areas of public sphere remain nation-centred. That is the case of the media and Education. For that specific case, K.H. Jarausch stresses that European cultural identity is limited by educational history programs, which present nations in a simple and isolated process, relegating Europe and European co-operation at a second rank. There is then a dialectical relation between national identities and European identity. It seems to hardly permit the creation of a European common identity by including national diversity. [...]
[...] Jarausch, A European Identity : Reality or Hope ? http://www.unc.edu/depts/eucenter/disc_fora98-9/jarauschdisc9811.html Treaty on European Union, published on July but also the Declaration on European Union (WEU) W.Goddard, J.R Llobera and C.Shore, The Anthropology of Europe : Identities, Boundaries in conflict, Berg-Oxford-Providence Citizens' Europe and the Construction of European Identity by C.Shore and A.Black ibid. see, neo-functionalist view developed by C.Shore and A.Black You do not go to a European Institution so as to get your European passport. As we know, the French Marseillaise refers to the French Revolution but it also evokes the French Republic and its principles of liberty, equality and fraternity. [...]
[...] It implies that European identity cannot be based on national scheme of identification since Europe is an union of nations. Besides, if Europe wants to claim an identity as distinct from the USA and Japan in an ever more global world, such an identity - in order to be called so and to be respected - needs to be based on pluralism. INCLUDING OR EXCLUDING NATIONAL DIVERSITY:WHICH EUROPEAN IDENTITY? A dialectical relation Before the development of the Nation-State in its nationalist form and the two World Wars, we could speak about a ‘vague sense of cultural commonality'. [...]
[...] Thus all nationals of MS have an European passport. This does not mean that our passports are delivered by European institutions but national administrations give a standardised document to their nationals. Driving licences and car-number plates have been submitted to the same Europeanisation. The European Community created also symbols of Europeanness, such as the twelve-stars flag, the European anthem and even a European day (9th of May). European sportive and educational partnerships and town-twining have been also created so as to link people within the European Community. [...]
[...] What do we refer to the European anthem? Is it as much strong as our national anthem? In fact the weakest link of the European identity is that it suffers a lack of popular identification, as a result of the essential top- down construction of the European Union. In that sense, Anthony. D Smith takes the results of Maastricht referendum in Denmark, France and the UK and writes ‘Governments may lead but their peoples do not always appear eager to follow them'. [...]
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