Interface Nord Sud : Espace caribéen, fiche de cours de 5 pages niveau lycée
La plupart des Etats de la Caraïbes, petits, voire minuscules, ne sont pas en mesure de
peser face aux multinationales. Ils doivent donc se conformer à leurs conditions. Ex : Walt
Disney en Haïti qui paye ses ouvrières 28 cents de l'heure. Voir également le cas de la
République dominicaine avec les implantations touristiques occidentales.
- De plus, faute de population qualifiée, ils ne peuvent pas bénéficier comme l'Asie orientale
ou l'Inde de transferts de haute technologie. Ils en sont réduits à ouvrir des zones franches
pour accueillir des maquilas (activités à faible valeur ajoutée) qui profitent à la fois peu à l'Etat
mais aussi peu aux ouvriers.
[...] Indeed, going beyond the purely economic reasoning, I find that there has in fact been convergence in the indices that best describe development in a holistic manner. Empirical evidence has shown that developed and developing countries have experienced vastly different rates of economic progress in the period from 1870 to 1990. Pritchett draws a clear distinction between developed countries, which form one closed group of now (and then) rich countries, and developing countries, which are defined in the negative as simply not being in the developed country group. [...]
[...] Therefore, divergence in economic growth does not necessarily imply divergence in economic development. It must be emphasized that what was true for the 20th century is not necessarily accurate for the 21st century. Economic slowdowns, financial crises, reduced productivity, and deteriorating demographics in the Western world are among the major factors of change. Twenty years ago, the world economy was largely dominated by the developed countries (two-thirds of the total GDP by PPP, according to The Economist), but since then, their part has fallen to about 50% and it is estimated that it will decrease further in the coming decades. [...]
[...] The reasons for the increased inequality in income per capita are varied. Marxists theorists have attributed this divergence to the rise of capitalism, which they have criticized for having created dependency of developing economies to developed ones. However, this approach may be too minimalist as it makes developed countries the sole responsible for world inequality in income. It is true that the rapid European economic convergence has widened the gap between developed and developing countries but one must not omit the role of endogenous factors such as cultural exceptionalism in explaining the widening of the gap. [...]
[...] 87/04 (2004). N. Crafts, World Economy in the 1990s: a Long Run Perspective', LSE Department of Economic History Working Paper No. 87/04 (2004). C. Kenny, are We Worried About Income? Nearly Everything that Matters is Converging', World Development (2005) 1-19. A. Deaton, ‘Health in an Age of Globalisation', NBER Working Paper No.10669 (2004). [...]
[...] C. Kenny, are We Worried About Income? Nearly Everything that Matters is Converging', World Development (2005) 1-19 L. Pritchett, Divergence Big Time, Journal of Economic Perspectives (1997) 3-17. F. Bourguignon & C. Morrison, Inequality Among World Citizens: 1820- 1992, American Economic Review (2002), 727-744. N. Crafts, World Economy in the 1990s: a Long Run Perspective', LSE Department of Economic History Working Paper No. [...]
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