The House of Lords
[...] Ÿ The House of Lords Act 1999. Continued the process of democratisation following Tony Blair''s campaign arguments by limiting the number of hereditary peers that can sit in the HL to 90 + 2. The other members of the HL = life peers, law lords, bishops & archbishops. Creation of life peers should no longer be on the hands of the PM. Ÿ Constitutional Reform Act 2005. In the process to be implemented HL = no judicial function at all. [...]
[...] The House of Commons came into existence. Incapacity to rule for the King. HL = 1st found in 1451, one finds 2 other expressions: - Lords espiritualls & Lords temporels = Lords spirituals & temporal division of England between the civil side and the ecclesiastical side. Hereditary peers and Lords spirituals composed the HL. Lords spirituals : Ÿ Archbishops of Canterbury and York. Ÿ Bishops of London, Durham and Winchester. Ÿ 21 other bishops. House of Lords : Legislative + judicial functions: highest court of the land. [...]
[...] Chapter The fall of the House of Lords. Originally, the House of Lords had almost all the powers. In 1066, William the Conqueror became William I of England, having invaded England. THE CIVIL DIVISION OF ENGLAND FOLLOWING THE NORMAN CONQUEST: The military leaders were called Barons, each of them had an interest in a land in exchange of the obligation to provide a military service. They did the same with other people social hierarchy FEODAL SYSTEM. These Barons had lands, which they administered. [...]
[...] Representation in the House of Commons became more democratic. The House of Lords came to be heavily criticized because: Ÿ The HL, composed of the aristocracy in a country becoming more democratic. Ÿ The HL was an example of how, in the English legal system, the principle of modern democracy (separation of powers) was not respected (because HL = legislative + judiciary). Violation of the principle. DIFFERENT ACTS: Ÿ Judicature Act 1875 One issue = whether or not the judiciary function of the HL should be maintained compromise : The Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 the HL as a whole would no longer have a judiciary function, would be restricted to a committee of the HL, composed of 12 members. [...]
[...] In recent years, since 1988, the process of devolution has resulted in the Scotland Act, the Government of Wales Act and the Belfast Agreement creation of a legislature and a government with powers in certain fields, rather like in the US (sharing powers between the central power and the different states. SEPARATION OF POWERS: UK = sometimes called a Parliamentary democracy = the legislative body (Parliament) does not only have legislative powers, but also judiciary. The executive (government), is responsible for most of the important statutes made by Parliament. TITLE The House of Lords. [...]
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